Phytoestrogens Are Not Estrogen

Phytoestrogens are a special group of phytonutrients that occur naturally in most plant foods. The two major classes are isoflavones in soy, and lignans in seeds, whole grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables.

They’re called phytoestrogens because they interact with estrogen receptors but they’re not estrogen. In fact, they bind so weakly to estrogen receptors that they effectively block estradiol and are therefore better classified as anti-estrogen.

It’s long been observed that phytoestrogen crops such as red clover suppress the estrogen and fertility of livestock. It’s even been proposed that plants evolved phytoestrogens to reduce the fertility of female herbivores and prevent overgrazing.

In a chapter called “Agriculture and Selection for High Levels of Estrogen,” evolutionary biologist Grazyna Jasienska makes the case that ancient humans evolved higher levels of estradiol as a way to adapt to agriculture and phytoestrogen-rich plant food. In that context, it could be said that those of us with agrarian ancestors are “hormonally calibrated” to a relatively high intake of phytoestrogens to shelter us from our own high estrogen.

So, what does this mean for period health? Well, for one thing, it’s fine to eat phytoestrogens like legumes and seeds. They’ve long been part of our traditional diet, and our hormonal system is adapted to them.

How phytoestrogens affect women’s hormones

For women of reproductive age, phytoestrogens have a beneficial anti-estrogen effect and help to promote the healthy metabolism or detoxification of estrogen. Food-based phytoestrogens may even help to prevent some hormone-sensitive cancers.

Heavy periods. By reducing estrogen, phytoestrogens generally make periods lighter. However, if the dose is high enough to suppress ovulation and progesterone (the hormone that lightens periods), the result can be a heavier period.

Endometriosis. In general, phytoestrogens should be neutral for endometriosis, or even slightly beneficial. Some women with endometriosis report a worsening of symptoms with soy which is probably due to soy-induced iodine deficiency or an immune reaction. Read Immune treatment for endometriosis.

PCOS. Phytoestrogens can improve insulin resistance and have been found to have a beneficial effect on the hormonal condition polycystic ovary syndrome.

Hypothalamic amenorrhea. Phytoestrogens cannot correct the estrogen deficiency of hypothalamic amenorrhea. The treatment for hypothalamic amenorrhea is to promote ovulation by eating more. Read my blog post about estrogen deficiency.

Menopause. During menopause, when estrogen is low, phytoestrogens can have a mild pro-estrogen effect. That has led to a great deal of research into the use of phytoestrogen supplements such as soy as an alternative to menopausal hormone therapy. From hundreds of studies and a few meta-analyses, it appears that isoflavones may help hot flushes, but don’t do much, if anything, for other symptoms of menopause.

Thyroid disease. Concentrated extracts of soy isoflavones may suppress thyroid function. Food-based soy is probably okay as long as you also have enough iodine.

In conclusion, phytoestrogens generally have a beneficial anti-estrogen effect in women. They have a mild pro-estrogen effect in menopausal women, which may be beneficial, and a pro-estrogen effect in men and children, which may be detrimental at a high dose.

Ask me in the comments.

54 thoughts on “Phytoestrogens Are Not Estrogen”

  1. Hi Lara – thanks for your post. What about women who have endometriosis that are trying to conceive naturally? Although the soy may have an anti-estrogen effect, would the soy suppress their fertility? Thanks!

    Reply
  2. Hi Lara! I’m Evelyn, from Argentina. I’m 36 years old. I have heavy pre menstrual symptoms related to sadness, anger, irritability. I become “Hulk” for one week. I read about isoflavones could help with pre menstrual symptoms. But I don’t want to alter my fertility. What would you recommend me? Can we talk or have a chat?
    Thank you very much. I look foward to hear from you. 💜

    Reply
    • have you seen my book “Cómo mejorar tu ciclo menstrual”? It’s available in Argentina and has a chapter on premenstrual mood symptoms.

      Reply
  3. I have not had my period in 6.5 years (I am 20). My functional medicine doctor believes I have either adrenal PCOS and/or a mix of HA. I lost some weight around 8th grade into highschool due to sports and eating healthier. l I have very high DHEAS levels but very low LH and FSH. I also have low levels of estradiol (the highest it has ever been with 5 labs is 41 pg/ml)

    I am not a vegetarian but enjoy bean dishes, lentil pasta, etc. regularly. I do not eat any soy products but eat a lot of nuts, nut butters and almond flour, flaxseeds, fruits, vegetables, etc. After reading “Period Repair Manual”, this article, and other sources it seems like they can be both good or bad. I am wondering if other sources other than soy are enough to throw my period off/ if they should be avoided (or what type should be avoided )with someone who experiences symptoms that I do.

    Reply
  4. Post miscarriage (December 2018) I gained 30 pounds within 3 months. Early 2019. My doctor ran a hormonal blood work panel. My estrogen has been low since. A naturopath had me start taking Dr. Christopher’s Red Clover daily for the past 7 months. Should I stop this? She told me it would help balance my estrogen levels, now i’m wondering if it’s causing issues and metabolizing my estrogen too much? I am also taking bioidentical progesterone as my progesterone has been low for a year now. I am not in menopause, I am 31 years old and we are trying to conceive.
    She also had me start using Dr. Christopher’s Kelp supplements for thyroid support, I had my entire thyroid removed in 2010 due to papillary cancer. After reading you’re book I’m wondering if I should also stop the Kelp.

    Reply
  5. Hey ! Thanks for this post. There’s so much confusion about soy. My question is tofu also has phytoestrogens then? Then tofu is good for Endometriosis?

    Reply
    • Tofu definitely has phytoestrogens, therefore, in theory, the anti-estrogen effect of that should be beneficial.

      In practice, some women with endo feel better off soy which could be because 1) soy is a common food sensitivity and 2) soy foods are often high-histamine.

      Reply
  6. What diet could be recommended for thickening of uterus endometrium (4-5 mm), from 2018 till today, I am 52, menopause for 4 years, papa test was always OK. My gynecologist told me that I maybe eat a lot of phytoestrogens? I have regular controls. Thank you!!!

    Reply
  7. Thank you Lara for your response . I break out with phytoestrogen supplements , flaxseeds , nuts , anything with soy . I couldn’t do seed cycling for hormonal acne because I break out with flaxseeds etc. I developed acne only after I took B.C. for a few days and since then acne has been relentless . I don’t eat sugar. Any suggestions ?

    Plus for how long can one take zinc ? Can you continue taking it for years ?

    Thank you and looking forward to your response.

    Reply
  8. Hello Lara,

    I read all these great things about phytoestrogens, but every time I try to take one , I break into cystic acne . I have no idea why this happens . I also break into cystic acne with Omega 3s ; all these things are supposed to reduce body inflammation but they end up exacerbating my acne . What are your thoughts on it ?

    Thanks

    Reply
  9. Thank you so much Lara regarding the Progesterone reminder. Yes l am on micronised Progesterone and 50mg estrogen patches. However sth new and confusing happened which l would love to share with you. My doctor told me to wear the estrogen patches everyday ( by changing them each week) then take progesteron for the last 2 weeks of my cycle. After then l am supposed to have a period and that after the progesteron and during my period l should give 1 week break to estrogen ( 1 week of using nothing and starting all over again following the same cycle) However on the online platform l was discussing this with the other members and l ve been told that normally there should be no break at all and that l should wear the edtrogen patches all the time. Also instead of 14 days l should use the progesterone for 12 days. I m really confused and shy away from contacting my doctor as this was exactly what he told me to do. What re your thoughts dear Lara?

    Reply
  10. Sorry Lara but some questions still left in my mind. Because l was actually diagnoised with POF 5 years ago at age 32 and refused the Hrt, l now have a decline bone density and started taking Estrogen patches and progesterone pills since last two weeks. I m trying so hard to have a daily diet rich in calcium ( also take magnesium, d3 and zinc), and try to get it from dietary source rather than supplement. My question is, l don t eat any soy however l eat almost 100gr tahini per day as its high in calcium, well as many other Phytoestrogen foods.( I see that sesame seeds are quite high up in the list.) Would eating a daily diet rich in Phytoestrogen reduce the 50mg of Estrogen l get from my patch or adds more on top that it becomes too much and dangerous? Thank you Lara.

    Reply
    • Phytoestrogens will not make much of a difference either way in your situation except to help your body to metabolise the estrogen from the patch — which is a good thing.

      With HRT, one of the most important things is to take micronised progesterone (Prometrium or Utrogestan) rather than a progestin. Read 4 Things to know about body-identical HRT.

      Reply
  11. Hi Lara, l m 37 diagnoised with POF and in our family we eat a lot of beans,lentils, seeds. My question would be if there is any harm to continue to do so or should l lessen it. Another point l m struggling to decide is, wheter l should take progesterone pills for 14 days like my doctor prescribed or for 12 days, as lately l ve been told by another lady who was in my situation for the past 11 years that 14 days of progesterone would be too much. I m on 3.9mg Climera estrogen patch everyday and was told to take progesterone pills for the last two weeks. 200mg a day. Would you recommend 14 or 12 days? Thank you so much.

    Reply
    • From a hormonal perspective, beans, lentils, seeds are fine to eat in any situation.

      And re: progesterone dosing, best to speak to your doctor. When using estradiol + progesterone for menopausal hormone therapy, the progesterone can be dosed continuously or intermittently.

      Reply
  12. Hello, I am Lorena. I am reading your book Period repair manual in Spanish. I am from Mexico. I was diagnosed with endometriosis and I was taking the birth control pills for 10 moths and I stopped taking the pill because I am looking for a natural treatment. In the book you recommend turmeric caps in high dose, magnesium,  zinc, resveratrol and others supplements. Can I start with turmeric (how many caps?) Zinc and magnesium? Do you recommend a brand of supplements? And how long do I have to take them?

    Reply
  13. Hi Dr. Briden, I am 46, on paleo diet with vegetables being dominant part of it. I`ve been suffering from extreme fatigue, balance issues and other “flu-like” symptoms on the first day of my cycle. I decided to try and exclude animal protein from my diet for 10 days before my period starts in attempt to decrease inflammation and avoid getting those symptoms. For that time my main protein sources became legumes (lentils and chickpeas) and rice. The day before my period I had a very strange symptoms: elevated heart rate and body temperature (could it be a hot flash?). On the day 1 of my period I experienced extreme weakness, heat intolerance and low stress tolerance. It took me 4 days to go back to my “baseline”. Next month I excluded meat for 4 days before getting my period, continued eating eggs and fish, and also legumes. Hours before getting my period I got similar symptoms, except this time there were also anxiety-like symptoms and racing heart every time I was standing or walking. Also, I started sweating at night several days before my period and for the first two days of it. And again, it took me 3-4 days to fully recover. Does it sound to you as part of perimenopause or could phytoestrogens in legumes play a role in it?

    Thank you very much!

    Reply
    • If you’re getting symptoms just after your period, the first thing to consider is iron. Has your doctor tested your ferritin levels?
      Might be worth checking with your doctor generally to rule out thyroid and other issues.

      I’m pretty sure phytoestrogens wouldn’t be playing a role in the symptoms you’re describing.

      Reply
  14. Hi Lara,

    I don’t get my period or ovulation and I have little facial hair on my chin. I have been taking zinc, magnesium, vitamin D and myo inositol because the doctor said I have PCOS. And I just started taking P-plus cream which is a natural progesterone but I spot each time I apply it to my skin and also expressing breast tenderness. Should I continue with all the supplement and also get iodine like you recommended in your book, will it help me ovulate/ conceive.

    Reply
  15. Hi, thank God I found out about you yesterday and decided to read your book period repaid manual. I was diagnosed with PCOS when I started trying to have baby and now Mild left hydrosalpinx with overflow spillage on my Fallopian tube. I am about to start fertility treatment but after I came across your book yesterday. I want to do all natural treatment. I am currently taking Vitex, living bitters, vitamin D and fish oil. I need advice on how to go about it. Thanks

    Reply
  16. Can flax or other phytoestrogens suppress or delay menstruation? I get flu like PMS and this month took flax during it on the assumption the flu like body aches were from estrogen withdrawal. The aches went away but the period never came. But I got egg white like discharge like I normally do around ovulation.

    Reply
  17. Have you read the book Breast Cancer Boot Camp?
    Makes the case that phytoestrogens contribute to breast cancer due to estrogen receptors getting overstimulated –> abnormal growth –> cancer. Conclusion from thousands of thermograms of women.

    Would love your thoughts Lara!

    Reply
    • First step is for her to check with her doctor to test for infection and get a diagnosis.
      One possibility is bacterial vaginosis which can be treated with probiotics.

      Reply
  18. Thank you very much. Yes, I`ve read that blog post and both editions of your books. Very helpful. With the information you are providing there I`ve eliminated PMS and period pain. I am very grateful to you!

    Reply
  19. Hi Dr Briden, awesome article! I’m a huge fan of your book! Question: where has this myth of phyoestrogens of causing higher estrogen levels come from??

    Reply
  20. Thank you for replying. I love your book. There’s nothing like it. And I’ve bought it for so many people. You rule! Is the only cure for adenomyosis a hysterectomy?

    Reply
  21. I did a month long siliva test for hormones. Both estrogen an progesterone were flatlined, with estrogen being slightly higher. That was 2 years ago, when I was 42. I have have severe symptoms (no cycle hot flashes, no sleep, terrible mood (crying and anger, when neither is normal). No one has been able to help. I would welcome any advice!

    Reply
  22. Hi Lara-
    Is 45 too young to be through menopause? I’ve get hot flashes and night sweats but drinking soy milk and taking black cohosh has eliminated them. I suffered for many years from pmdd. Now that I no longer ovulate, I am completely symptomless. I’m just concerned that 45 is too young to no longer ovulate. Should I be concerned or just happy that I not longer suffer from extreme pms?

    Reply
    • 45 is technically in the normal range for menopause but a little on the young side in terms of maybe needing a little support for your long-term bone health.
      Probably best to check in with your doctor, but yes, you might be in the situation where you can just be happy.

      Reply
  23. No endo and never had birth control. Have had a normal pregnancy and birth as well. But i was terrified the whole time that I would accidentally eat soy and have a miscarriage!

    Reply
  24. Hi Lara. Thank you for this. I have been thinking about exactly this subject! I have fibrocystic breasts, andenomyosis, extremely heavy frequent painful periods and I’m high risk breast cancer due to family history. I’m coeliac and don’t have gluten obviously, but I also avoid dairy as it makes everything much more painful. I recently tried using soya products instead of almond as they taste more neutral and after a few months I was in agony; I had a burst ovarian cyst and a huge painful cyst in my breasts. I’m off the soya now and it’s all calmed down. In light of your article – why would this be? The old ‘soya is good/soya is bad’ dilemma is a real pain for me and for my mother recovering from breast cancer. Kind regards, Liz.

    Reply
    • I probably should have stated this in the article, but in general, I’m not a fan of soy. Not because it’s a phytoestrogen, but because it’s a common food sensitivity and can worsen inflammatory conditions like adenomyosis. There’s really no reason to have large amounts of soy but it should be fine to have a moderate amount of other food-based phytoestrogens.

      Reply
  25. Thank you very much for very informative article. Would you recommend seed cycling in perimenopause. I am 46, still ovulating, have endo and thyroid nodules. Thank you!

    Reply
  26. Hi Dr. Briden, I saw you speak a couple of years ago at Loom in Los Angeles. I was misdiagnosed with endometriosis (I had the surgery, no endo) due to symptoms of painful sex, painful periods, and hormone imbalances. I also had several hip surgeries. You suggested it sounded like my problems might be structural, rather than hormonal, and you were correct. I was abused by a pediatrician with medical instruments as a child and was recently diagnosed with vaginal nerve damage, vulvodynia, and vaginismus.

    Here’s my question to you: Back in the day, when I was still trying to get an accurate diagnosis, and doctors were focusing on hormones rather than structural diagnoses, my endocrinologist did a hormone panel and said my testosterone was on the higher end and put me on Spironolactone for acne. I was on it for about 3 years. I tapered off of it about 2.5 years ago because I didn’t see any progress with acne or other symptoms. I’ve never been on hormonal birth control.

    Today, I vaginally insert a verabase cream twice daily made with gabapentin, lidocaine, and estradiol. My gynecologist recently rewrote the prescription to include testosterone, which makes me very nervous because I thought my testosterone levels were already too high. I asked her why she added testosterone and she said that a lot of my vaginal pain during sex is because of the thin tissue, due to nerve damage. It’s not absorbing hormones, so it’s not as plump as it should be, which is why it feels like it’s burning. She said the estradiol and testosterone will help the tissue with plumpness. However, she said if I was uncomfortable with the testosterone, she can re-write the prescription without it.

    I’m already nervous and uncomfortable with the estradiol, I don’t want synthetic hormones interfering in my body. But she’s very, very pushy about wanting me to go on birth control. We’ve already had an argument about it. I have an appointment this Friday to discuss the prescription. Can you offer your thoughts on whether conditions similar to mine benefit from testosterone in the verabase cream prescription, and if there is any benefit to structural conditions like this from going on hormonal birth control?

    Thank you so much!

    Reply
  27. Hi Lara, I’ve had the same issues as well with soy so I tend to avoid flax and any other food high in phytoestrogen because I had the worst hormonal acne. I was leaning on non dairy alternatives because i had my gallbladder out in my 20s. Dairy was just too heavy on my stomach. I continue to avoid milk to this day. Side thought, I look back now and realize that birth control probably caused my gallbladder issue. Now that I am off of birth control just recently, I’m almost 35, do I need to be concerned with a reaction to soy? Why does birth control cause a reaction to soy?

    Reply
  28. What is going on with my wacky reaction to photoestrogens then? Ever since I was 20 or so I react to soy, flax, chia with breast pain, period type bleeding, and cramps. Thanks!

    Reply
    • I’ve heard this kind of reaction from a few other commenters but I’ve never seen it with patients.
      Are you on any kind of hormonal birth control? or, do you have endometriosis? Because definitely, soy seems to be a problem for some women with endo, which I think is more of an immune reaction.

      Reply
  29. Our daughter has recently discovered breast lumps which are looking like fibro adenomas on ultrasound. One is quite large. She is refusing to have a biopsy. Any help with healing and dissolving these would really be appreciated. I must get your book out and have another read!

    Reply
  30. Hi Lara, do you have any thoughts on anti-inflammatory autoimmune protocol type diets? That is, diets that avoid not only wheat and dairy but also things like legumes and nightshades? Is a diet that extreme helpful or necessary? I was recently diagnosed with Sjögren’s Syndrome (which also affects sex hormones) and I am trying to figure out the best way to optimize my health, but it’s very overwhelming.

    Reply

I welcome your comment!

Send this to a friend